Electrostimulation is recognized as an effective method for the rehabilitation of patients, and to improve results when we combine it with physical activity. In this post, we will learn what bone callus is, and what role it plays in bone fractures. In addition, we will check if the electrostimulation system is efficient for the recovery of fractures, and its effectiveness with fractures in which consolidation disorders occur.
What is bone callus?
The bone callus is a natural formation that appears after the fracture of a bone to join its ends. The bone fracture precedes a hematoma that becomes a clot, this becomes tissue after a process of connective metabolism and cartilage tissue and osteoid tissue, on which calcium is confined, forming mature bone tissue. The union of a fracture may be abnormal, and it is possible that another callus may form, such as hypertrophic, vicious, etc.
We can define bone callus as the temporary formation of fibroblasts and chondroblasts in the fracture zone of a bone, while it tries to regenerate.
- Fibroblasts are a very common type of cell and are found in connective tissue.
- Chondroblasts are cells that contain the organelles necessary to synthesize proteins.
Bone callus in fractures
The body has the ability to regenerate its tissues after an injury, replacing damaged tissues with new tissue. The bone has a very important regeneration capacity and a certain time for its repair. This process of bone repair is known as bone healing.
Bone consolidation is completed in 3 consecutive phases. These phases are: inflammatory and proliferative, fracture callus formation, and remodeling.
When a bone is impacted, it absorbs energy along with the surrounding soft tissues, but if the energy exceeds its absorption capacity, the bone fractures. When a bone fractures, local hemorrhage and necrosis of bone cells and soft tissues occur. That’s where the procedure begins:
Starting from the previous situation, the cells begin to migrate to the fracture site and these cells begin to multiply. Fluid accumulates in the space between the cells and increases capillary permeability, leading to edema around the fracture and inflammation.
Fracture callus formation
In the second phase, the soft fracture callus begins to form. In this phase, the cells in the outer layers of the bone and soft tissues proliferate, and the cells that will form the new bone tissue, cells that absorb and remodel the bone, and cells that create cartilaginous tissues begin to differentiate.
At the end of this phase, the mineralization of the callus begins to take place, due to the crystals that are deposited in it.
This phase can take months and even years. If the injured area is not vascularized, regeneration never occurs, since the metabolic activity that involves repair cannot be carried out without the oxygen contained in the blood. For this reason, it is sometimes necessary to perform vascularized bone grafts.
Vascularized bone is bone tissue that has blood vessels that are used to replace diseased or injured bone.
EMS and benefits for body composition
Training with electrostimulation
Physical training is important to achieve benefits in body composition. Programs that combine strength resistance and cardio training help reduce body fat and increase muscle mass, but we can also find other benefits such as increased bone mineral density.
The increase in bone mineral density is an important factor in preventing fractures, or benefits recovery when we suffer a bone injury.
According to a study carried out by Amaro-Gahete, De-la-O, Jurado-Fasoli, Ruiz, Castillo, and Gutiérrez (2019) for the journal Medicine and Science in Sport, training with EMS systems favors the improvement of body composition.
This research aimed to investigate the effects of different training programs on body composition parameters in sedentary middle-aged adults. The first training program was based on the WHO physical activity recommendation. The second performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and the third added the full-body electrical stimulation system (WB-EMS) to the HIIT training program.
All sessions began with a dynamic general mobility warm-up and cooled down with global active stretching.
The results of this research led the authors to the conclusion that training with a body muscle electrostimulation system improves the results in all the parameters studied.
The bone callus is a natural formation of the human body that appears after a fracture in order to join the ends. Sedentary life and poor diet favor bone fragility, increasing the chances of fracture.
One of the ways to prevent fractures is by carrying out physical activities that improve our body composition. In addition, we must obtain the necessary minerals and vitamins to strengthen our bone composition.
Electrostimulation combined with physical training raises the levels of mineralization in the bones, in addition to promoting fat burning and improving body composition. That is why it is postulated as a means of preventing fractures, or of rehabilitation once the injury has been suffered.
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Amaro-Gahete, FJ, De-la-O, A, Jurado-Fasoli, L, Ruiz, JR, Castillo, MJ, Gutiérrez, Á. Effects of different exercise training programs on body composition: a randomized control trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019; 29:968-979. Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2019 ; 29 : 968 – 979 .